En los últimos meses se ha visto un incremento del desempleo a nivel de Lima Metropolitana. Esto me conduce al hecho de que una de las principales preocupaciones presentes en el estudio de la macroeconomía contemporánea se refiere a la eza que envuelve al desempleo como un indicador tanto de los agregados macroeconómicos nacionales, así como del estado de los mercados laborales del país.
Por lo general, en los libros de texto introductorios a la macroeconomía, el tratamiento del desempleo se da en una forma muy breve y somera. No obstante, la inclusión de las consecuencias que el desempleo genera en forma individual, a niveles tanto psicológicos como sociales más amplias, las cuales podrían involucrar al lector a concientizarse sobre la magnitud detrás de los temas que se están tratando.
Así, disciplinas como la sociología o la psicología, lle su metodología y sus aportes al terreno económico al vislumbrar otros puntos de vista, enriqueciéndolo. Por ejemplo, investigaciones como las de Shapiro y Ahlburg (1982) o Darity y Gsmith (1996) muestran diferentes implicaciones del desempleo en cuanto a acterísticas a nivel individual, lo cual, en términos económicos, podría etiquetarse como los efectos socioeconómicos a nivel micro que ocasiona el desempleo. Por citar, en Shapiro y Ahlburg (1982) se menciona que la correlación existente entre el aumento de la tasa de desempleo y la tasa de suicidios es positiva.
Introduciendo a mayor profundidad la discusión sobre las implicancias del desempleo, los economistas no suelen considerar variables de eza psicológica en los os económicos en general. Por ejemplo, en los mercados de trabajo, la variable que usualmente se considera como endógena es el nivel de salarios es para equilibrar tanto la oferta como la demanda de trabajo. Sin embargo, veríamos que los tradicionales os neoclásicos podrían diferir bastante en sus conclusiones si se introdujeran variables psicológicas como endógenas en el análisis.
En Darity y Gsmith (1996), en el cual consideran, tanto para las cantidades de trabajo ofertado y demandado, una segunda variable denominada “estado psicológico social” (1996:30), ape de los niveles de salarios es. Aquí, los autores citados teorizan dos conexiones entre el estado cional de los trabajadores y el desempleo: primero, el desempleo afecta el enestar psicológico de los trabajadores en una forma considerable; y, segundo, dicho enestar tiene una importante influencia en la productividad.
La eza innovadora del o radica en que, en un contexto recesivo, una política que estimule a retornar al empleo a su estado inicial de equilibrio sería inefectiva. Ello radica en que se acrecienta la exposición al desempleo por pe de los trabajadores que no han sido despedidos. Variables como los niveles de autoestima, motivación peral y las halidades sin desarrollar a lo largo del periodo de desempleo influyen seriamente en el trabajador. Esto conlleva a que, en conjunto, el mercado de trabajo no retorna a su posición original y recuerda el concepto de histéresis, por el cual, cuando se “limpia” el mercado, este no retorna a su antiguo nivel de equilibrio, sino que termina en uno distinto.
En resumen, la teoría económica actual muchas veces deja de lado las implicaciones a nivel del individuo en términos psicológicos y sociales. Esto puede afectar de distintas formas el desempeño de la economía, lo cual no puede estar siendo considerado adecuadamente por los economistas al enfose más en variables propiamente económicas. Una visión un poco más interdisciplinaria nos ayudaría a izar mejor y entender, asimismo, las dimensiones en las cuales impacta el desempleo en la economía y, sobre todo, en el ser humano.
DARITY, W. y A. GOLDSMITH (1996) Social psychology, unemployment and macroeconomics. The ournal of Economic Perspectives, 121-140.
SHAPIRO.M.O y D.A. AHLBURG (1982) Suicide: the ultimate cost of unemployment. ournal of Post Keynesian Economics, 276-280.
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